White Horehound 苦薄荷/夏至草
How Air Pollution Ages Your Skin
By now, most people know that air pollution directly affects their overall health and well-being, but few realize the heavy toll it takes on their skin.
Mounting research shows that a form of air pollution known as particulate matter can penetrate the skin to induce oxidative stress and inflammation, paving the way for wrinkles, fine lines, mottled pigmentation, and cancer
Every day we’re bombarded by dust, soot, pollen, and smoke in the air from various sources, despite our best efforts to avoid them. These particles—collectively referred to as particulate matter—are small enough to penetrate the skin, where they generate a storm of free radicals. The ensuing oxidative stress creates an unfavorable environment of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage that compromises the skin’s structural integrity to accelerate aging.
Protect Your Skin from Toxic Pollution
The impact of air pollution can appear quickly. Researchers discovered that healthy steel workers exposed to particulate matter for three consecutive days experienced blood-cell DNA damage that reduced the expression of cancer-preventing genes.
Abundant research shows a strong association between particulate-matter exposure and the hallmarks of skin aging. One study found that participants were 20% more likely to suffer from skin pigmentation on the forehead and cheeks when exposed to increased levels of soot and traffic particles. Another study showed that higher levels of indoor air pollution from cooking fuels increased the likelihood of wrinkle formation on the face by 5%-8% and on the back of the hands by 74%.
When researchers examined the totality of evidence that exists to date, they concluded that “air pollution exerts detrimental effects on human skin.
Marrubium vulgare, also known as White Horehound, is a medicinal plant that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. While celebrated in ancient times by the Romans and Arabs for its ability to treat respiratory disorders and indigestion, research today reveals that Marrubium vulgare extracts show promise in lowering lipids,1 blood pressure,2 and blood sugar.3,4
These benefits are mostly related to its free-radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties, 5,6 which translates into vital skin protection and rejuvenation. Marrubium vulgare was shown in vitro to exhibit four key characteristics that make it an ideal pollution fighter:7
Protects against the entry of particulate matter into the skin, reducing uptake by 76%.
Removes and neutralizes damaging free radicals as evident by a 21%, 26%, and 38% reduction in DNA damage, carbonylation, and lipoperoxidation, respectively.
Strengthens the skin’s barrier function by 18.6% versus control after exposure to particulate matter.
Repairs cell metabolism by boosting adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production by 66%.
- control skin inflammation
- Reduces DNA damage
- Contains potent anti-aging actives
- Helps protect skin from oxidative stress caused by UV radiation and the natural aging process
- Contains potent actives which treat sunburn and inflammation
- Helps to minimize inflamed skin and redness
- Provide strong antioxidant protection and protection from UV radiation
- Increase the production of collagen as well as hyaluronic acid in human fibroblasts
Essential Oils / Volatile oil： camphene, p-cymene, fenchene
- Reduce inflammation; reduce the oxidative stress that can lead to tissue damage
Caffeic acid derivatives
- Increase collagen production and capacity to prevent premature aging of the skin.
- Possess antioxidant effects on the skin and protect it against UV damage via inhibiting extracellular matrix degradation and anti-irritation due to their anti-inflammatory action. Also, in cases of acne, saponins may be used due to their antiseptic activities.
- Help remove excess oil from pores without drying out the skin. Contain anti-inflammatory properties that can help minimize redness and inflammation
- Protect the skin from visible and blue light
- Smooths wrinkles and age spots while protecting against UV Rays
- Natural moisturize and hydrate skin cells.
- Support new skin cell growth
- Improve your skin's texture and moisture retention; even out skin tone and reduce those dark spots
Vitamin A,C,E & F
Effectiveness Validated in Human Trials
By blocking and repairing some of the skin-aging effects of air pollution, Marrubium vulgare extract has been demonstrated in human studies to provide both immediate and long-lasting results.
When 100 volunteers ages 18 to 60 topically applied Marrubium vulgare extract for 10 to 15 minutes as part of a facial mask, roughly 80% of them reported improved skin moisture and restoration of a healthy glow within just one hour! The morning after using Marrubium vulgare extract, more than 70% of participants felt they had a less tired and polluted appearance, as well as cleaner skin with a revived complexion. In addition, 84% of them felt their skin was fresher the next morning.7
Longer use of Marrubium vulgare extract confers additional skin benefits. In the first study, researchers evaluated the impact of Marrubium vulgare extract on 40 participants ages 21 to 67 with blackheads and comedones. After four weeks of twice-daily topical application, the number of blackheads was reduced up to 50% and the surface area they occupied decreased up to 67%. The color and size of comedones were reduced up to 52%, and their number decreased up to 93%.7
Marrubium vulgare extract can reverse the appearance of rough and grainy skin. This was clearly shown in a study in which human volunteers topically applied Marrubium vulgare extract or a placebo twice daily for 28 days. Researchers observed that the treatment group reduced skin roughness and graininess up to 50% and 34%, respectively, compared to the placebo group.7
People today avoid visible pollutants without realizing that invisible ones can easily penetrate the skin. The surge of oxidative stress and inflammation that soon follows alters the structure of skin tissues and cells, leading to the hallmarks of aging that include wrinkles and undesirable pigmentation.
Compelling evidence implicates the role of air pollution—especially particulate matter—in premature aging of the skin. Scientists have found that a novel extract derived from the plant Marrubium vulgare may help prevent and repair air pollution damage. When applied using a unique push-button operated system, this novel plant extracts results in smoother, fresher, younger-looking skin
Ibrahim AY, Hendawy SF, Elsayed AA, et al. Evaluation of hypolipidemic Marrubium vulgare effect in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2016;9(5):453-9.
El Bardai S, Lyoussi B, Wibo M, et al. Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and Foeniculum vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rat. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2001;23(4):329-43.
Boudjelal A, Henchiri C, Siracusa L, et al. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion. Fitoterapia. 2012;83(2):286-92.
Herrera-Arellano A, Aguilar-Santamaria L, Garcia-Hernandez B, et al. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(7-8):561-6.
Yousefi K, Fathiazad F, Soraya H, et al. Marrubium vulgare L. methanolic extract inhibits inflammatory response and prevents cardiomyocyte fibrosis in isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats. Bioimpacts. 2014;4(1):21-7.
Yousefi K, Hamedeyazdan S, Torbati M, et al. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique. Adv Pharm Bull. 2016;6(1):131-6.
CITYSTEMTM Monograph. Sederma. 2016.